Nearly one-third of journalists now serving time in prisons around the world published their work on the internet, the second-largest category behind print journalists, the US Committee to Protect Journalists said today.
The bulk of internet journalists in jail – 49 in total – shows that "authoritarian states are becoming more determined to control the internet," said Joel Simon, the New York-based group's executive director.
"It wasn't so long ago that people were talking about the internet as a new medium that could never be controlled," he said, adding: "The reality is that governments are now recognising they need to control the internet to control information."
When Iranian journalist Mojtaba Saminejad was sentenced to two years in prison for insulting his country's leader, it was not for an article that appeared in a newspaper. His offending story was posted on his personal weblog.
Other noteworthy imprisoned internet journalists include US video blogger Joshua Wolf, who refused to give a grand jury his footage of a 2005 protest against a G-8 economic summit, and China's Shi Tao, who is serving a 10-year sentence for posting online instructions by the government on how to cover the anniversary of the 1989 Tiananmen Square crackdown.
or the second year in a row, CPJ's annual survey found the total number of journalists in jail worldwide has increased.
There were 134 reporters, editors and photographers incarcerated as of December 1, nine more than a year ago.
In addition to the internet writers, the total includes 67 print journalists, eight TV reporters, eight radio reporters and two documentary filmmakers.
Among the 24 nations that have imprisoned reporters, China topped the list for the eighth consecutive year with 31 journalists behind bars – 19 of them internet journalists.
Cuba was second with 24 reporters in prison. Nearly all of them had filed their reports to overseas-based websites.
The US government and military has detained three journalists, including Associated Press photographer Bilal Hussein, who was taken into custody in Iraq nine months ago and has yet to be charged with a crime.
CPJ recorded the first jailing of an internet reporter in its 1997 census. Since then, the number has steadily grown and now includes reporters, editors and photographers whose work appeared primarily on the internet, in emails or in other electronic forms.
The rise in jailings of internet journalists is also an indication that reporters in authoritarian countries are increasingly using the web to circumvent state controls.
Cuban journalist Manuel Vasquez-Portal said he posted his articles on a Miami-based website because: "It was the only way to get the truth out of Cuba."
Mr Vasquez-Portal, who was jailed for 15 months in 2003, said he had to call his stories in to the operator of the website, though, because Cubans are not allowed access to the internet.