Netherlands-based doctor Matthias Rath is seeking unlimited libel damages after the British Medical Journal published a story which he claims is defamatory.
Dr Rath is seeking compensation of more than £300,000 from BMJ Publishing Group over a story in the BMJ in July, headed "Vitamins promoter goes on trial for fraud".
Dr Rath claimed the story, which also appeared on the BMJ website, was defamatory, and is seeking damages, and an injunction preventing the repetition of the allegations about him.
Dr Rath's publicity campaigns have persuaded people to take vitamin supplements instead of antiretroviral drugs.
The story, which is still available to view on the BMJ website now comes with the exclaimer "Dr Rath has raised a legal complaint about the truth of this story, which we are investigating".
A BMJ spokesperson said: "Concerns have been raised about the reference to Mr Rath in a recent BMJ article, and the matter is being considered by our legal team."